ONE MILLION POINTS OF LIGHT: TOP FIVE REASONS WE LOVE SOLAR...

Apr 29, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] GLOBAL PANORAMA Find out what the one-millionth solar installation in the US means for the future of renewable energy. Today, the future of solar energy is looking especially bright. That’s because the US reached a renewable energy milestone recently when the one-millionth solar installation came online.To help celebrate this new record, we’ve joined the #MillionSolarStrong campaign with our friends at the Solar Energy Industries Association. #MillionSolarStrong is not just a celebration of the progress the world has made in advancing solar energy, but also a look into a future built on clean, renewable energy where every day, we’re one step closer to putting an end to climate change. In this post, we’re celebrating this remarkable moment in solar and counting down the top five reasons we love solar energy. 5. Solar is booming. Consider...

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THIRTY WAYS CHERNOBYL AND THE DYING NUCLEAR INDUSTRY THREATEN OUR SURVIVAL...

Apr 26, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]     (Photo: Fi Dot)HARVEY WASSERMAN OF ECOWATCH FOR BUZZFLASH AT TRUTHOUT Article reprinted with permission from EcoWatch April 26 marks the 30th anniversary of the catastrophic explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. It comes as Germany, which is phasing out all its reactors, has asked Belgium to shut two of its nukes because of the threat of terrorism. It also comes as advancing efficiencies and plunging prices in renewable energy remind us that nukes stand in the way of solving our climate crisis. And it makes us remember the second and third biggest lies told us by the atomic power industry: that no commercial nuke could explode, and that no one would be harmed by reactor fallout. Prior to the 1986 disaster at Chernobyl, there was at least one minor explosion (on March...

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FOREIGN AFFAIRS SAYS SLASHING C02 QUICKLY REQUIRES NON-EXISTENT TECHNOLOGIES...

Apr 21, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   by Joe Romm CLIMATE PROGRESS CREDIT: By Koza1983 via Wikipedia Aerial photo of Spanish solar power towers.   Foreign Affairs has run one of the most confused, out-of-date and error-riddled pieces ever seen on clean energy and climate change. I will fact check it here, since the editors apparently didn’t. Despite the title, “The Clean Energy Revolution: Fighting Climate Change With Innovation,” it’s not about how the clean energy revolution of the last several years has been a game-changer for near-term climate action. Quite the reverse: It’s mostly an outdated rehashing of the oddly pessimistic “We need an energy miracle” myth, which has been debunked here and elsewhere so many times I’ve lost count. Bloomberg New Energy Finance: The “energy miracle” has arrived Indeed, earlier this month, Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF)...

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REVERSE PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS AN ULTRA-EFFICIENT BIOFUEL “GAME CHANGER”...

Apr 18, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] The ongoing quest for renewable energy takes a lot of cues from nature, and here’s one more. A team of scientists from Denmark’s University of Copenhagen has developed a “reverse photosynthesis” process that turns biomass into fuel using the sun’s energy. It’s essentially the opposite of what plants do by converting sunlight into chemical energy – and it could lead to new industrialized forms of clean energy that give fossil fuels a run for their money. < Biomass, typically in the form of straw or wood, can be converted to fuel through a variety of processes, but many are complicated, expensive, or have some unwanted side effects. The reverse photosynthesis process developed at the Copenhagen Plant Science Center is much cleaner, thanks to nature’s simplicity. An enzyme called lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase is added...

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FORTY PERCENT OF U.S. ELECTRICITY COULD COME FROM ROOFTOP SOLAR...

Apr 17, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   By s.e. smith, Care2 | Report With rooftop solar arrays becoming more common, the Department of Energy decided to do some exploring to quantify exactly how much energy Americans could generate if they installed photovoltaic systems efficiently and extensively. What they found was startling: The country could meet 39 percent of its energy needs through rooftop photovoltaics, and, surprisingly, small structures like private homes are likely to return the best results. In a country still struggling for energy independence and looking for ways to reduce its carbon footprint, this is big news. The next step is to make it happen. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory took a look at data from 128 cities — accounting for almost a quarter of the buildings in the U.S. — and evaluated them for solar...

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CALTECH’S 2500 ORBITING SOLAR PANELS COULD PROVIDE EARTH WITH LIMITLESS ENERGY...

Apr 13, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] FUTURISM NASA In Brief The Space Solar Power Initiative (SSPI), a collaboration between Caltech and Northrup Grumman, has developed a system of lightweight solar power tiles which can convert solar energy to radio waves and can be placed in orbit to beam power to an energy-thirsty Earth. Soaking in the Sun’s Rays One of the greatest challenges facing the 21st Century is the issue of power—how to generate enough of it, how to manufacture it cheaply and with the least amount of harmful side-effects, and how to get it to users. The solutions will have to be very creative—rather like what the Space Solar Power Initiative (SSPI), a partnership between Caltech and Northrup Grumman, has devised. Prototype of the “multifunctional tile.” Credit: Caltech “What we’re proposing, somewhat audaciously, is to develop the technology...

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WHY RURAL ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES ARE OPTING FOR COMMUNITY-SCALE SOLAR...

Apr 7, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] ROCKY MOUNTAIN INSTITUTE This is the third in a series of blog posts on RMI’s Shine program. Shine is innovating and unlocking the community-scale market. Download the insight brief.  Rural electric cooperatives (co-ops) are a large and important part of the U.S. electricity landscape. Across the U.S., 840 distribution cooperatives and 65 generation and transmission cooperatives (G&Ts) serve an estimated 42 million people. Altogether co-ops provide 12 percent of the nation’s electricity and serve nearly 80 percent of U.S. counties. These co-ops are governed by 7 cooperative principles. Principle number 6 is cooperation among cooperatives. That means that when one co-op has a successful idea they spread the word and other co-ops opt-in.  Source: National Rural Electric Cooperative Association The successful idea of the moment is community-scale solar. Rural electric cooperatives are spreading...

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THIS MASSIVE WIND-POWERED SKYSCRAPER WOULD COOL THE ENTIRE PLANET...

Mar 31, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   by Lacy Cooke  INHABITAT View Slideshow Paolo Venturella Architecture just unveiled plans for a fantastical Global Cooling Skyscraper that’s designed to fight global warming by cooling the entire planet. The massive skyscraper would extend into space, providing a barrier between the Earth and the Sun in the form of a greenhouse. Accumulating heat in the colossal greenhouse would propel air to flow, generating wind to cool the planet and provide “clean energy for all.” The architects cited the challenges of climate change as an inspiration; they said the strategies we have to combat global warming are not enough, and only a “global strategy” could halt the nature disasters resulting from climate change. So they designed an imaginative skyscraper that would utilize wind power to cool the planet. Related: Bio-Pyramid turns Egypt’s ancient...

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THE $2.5 BILLION U.S. POWER LINE THAT NO STATE CAN STOP...

Mar 30, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Jonathan Crawford CLIMATE PROGRESS Largest clean energy infrastructure project in U.S. Approved Construction set to commence in 2017, with startup in 2020   A $2.5-billion transmission line carrying wind power to the U.S. Southeast is coming — whether state regulators there like it or not. On Friday, the U.S. Energy Department used a decade-old statute to clear Clean Line Energy Partners LLC’s 705-mile (1,134-kilometer) power line for construction over any objections from the states involved. The Energy Department’s approval of the line, proposed to carry 4,000 megawatts of power from the wind-rich Oklahoma panhandle through Arkansas and into Tennessee, marks the first time the 2005 statute has been used to bypass state approval and push through an interstate transmission project. “Moving remote and plentiful power to areas where electricity is in high demand...

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AFTER 115 YEARS, SCOTLAND IS COAL-FREE...

Mar 26, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Alejandro Davila Fragoso CLIMATE PROGRESS CREDIT: Guinnog/Creative Commons For nearly 50 years the Longannet power station in Scotland burned coal for energy. The plant, the last of its kind in Scotland, closed Thursday. After some 115 years, Scotland has burned its last lump of coal for electricity. The Longannet power station, the last and largest coal-fired power plant in Scotland, ceased operations Thursday. What once was the largest coal plant in Europe shut down after 46 years before the eyes of workers and journalists, who gathered in the main control room. “Ok, here we go,” said one worker moments before pressing a bright red button that stopped the coal-fired turbines that generated electricity for a quarter of Scottish homes. Longannet’s closure comes as Scotland, a country of some 5 million people, aims...

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WALL STREET’S RETREAT FROM KING COAL...

Mar 26, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   Photo Credit Ty Wright/Bloomberg, via Getty Images The grave environmental damage from coal-fired power plants has done nothing to deter the Senate majority leader, Mitch McConnell, from decrying a “war on coal” and orchestrating his own war against the Obama administration’s climate change agenda. But he and other coal-state Republicans would be foolish to ignore the growing consensus on Wall Street that King Coal, for all its legendary political power, has turned into a decidedly bad investment. JPMorgan Chase announced this month that it would no longer finance new coal-fired power plants in the United States or other advanced nations, joining Bank of America, Citigroup and Morgan Stanley in retreating from a fuel that provides about one-third of the nation’s electricity and accounts for about one-quarter of the carbon emissions that feed...

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HOW (LITTLE) THE WORLD HAS CHANGED SINCE PARIS CLIMATE PACT...

Mar 21, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] By John Upton   CLIMATE CENTRAL National leaders have yet to sign a new United Nations climate pact, but developments during the three months since the Paris Agreement was finalized have been feverish. The fate of electricity rules underpinning U.S. commitments under the pact has been thrown into doubt, new data suggests China may have already hit its targets, and Europe has been embroiled in a debate over whether its climate commitments are sufficiently aggressive. The recent developments suggest momentum is still building in many places toward a meaningful global solution to global warming. Meanwhile, searing new temperature records demonstrated the increasing urgency of the problem. Paris. Credit: Miroslav Petrasko/Flickr The Paris Agreement was notable for being high on ambition. It aims to keep warming “well below” 2°C (3.6°F) above pre-industrial averages, and to “pursue...

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SOLAR ADVOCATES HAVE THEIR EYES ON LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES...

Mar 21, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Samantha Page CLIMATE PROGRESS CREDIT: Courtesy GRID Alternatives Volunteers and GRID Alternative staff get ready to install solar on a low-income home.   Solar power has been criticized for helping the wealthy and punishing the poor. Some groups — largely, it should be noted, utilities and advocacy groups funded by fossil fuel interests — say only affluent people can afford solar, leaving less-affluent people to pay more than their share for the grid. But it turns out that in the battle to transition to a cleaner, more networked grid, low-income communities are the next big front. There is no question that distributed solar changes the way we get and pay for our electricity. It is a disruptive technology — something that can change the fundamental way business is done. That in and...

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EXPERIMENT ON RENEWABLES COULD MAKE A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE...

Mar 17, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] By Tim Radford / Climate News Network  VIA TRUTHDIG     An illustration shows blue spheres of one metric ton each, cumulatively representing New York City’s daily carbon dioxide emissions of more than 50 million metric tons. (Carbon Visuals via Flickr) This piece first appeared at Climate News Network. LONDON—Here is a snapshot of the future for the energy-aware. It may one day be possible to drive an electric car with a battery partly made with carbon dioxide from the air. It may also be possible to recharge the same car in a garage covered with lightweight, flexible sheets of organic solar cells spread like wallpaper. And if that’s not enough, engineers might use energy from a bacterial fuel cell that generates current from the water flushed down their toilets. None of these...

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SURGING RENEWABLES KEEP GLOBAL CO2 FLAT AS ECONOMY GROWS...

Mar 17, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Joe Romm  CLIMATE PROGRESS CREDIT: Shutterstock   The International Energy Agency has confirmed that global carbon dioxide emissions have decoupled from economic growth. The IEA reports that for the second year in a row, the world economy has grown while energy-related CO2 emissions — the primary cause of climate change — remained flat, thanks to energy efficiency and a big surge in renewables. This decoupling is “unprecedented” and “huge” according to IEA chief Fatih Birol. The IEA explains that the only three previous times in the last four decades that emissions were flat or dropped (the early 1980s, 1992, and 2009) “were associated with global economic weakness.” What happened? The IEA says its “data suggest that electricity generated by renewables played a critical role, having accounted for around 90% percent of new...

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MAINE’S REPUBLICAN GOVERNOR IS KEEPING THE STATE FROM ADDING HUNDREDS OF SOLAR JOBS...

Mar 13, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Samantha Page CLIMATE PROGRESS CREDIT: AP Photo/Robert F. Bukaty Maine Gov. Paul LePage speaks at a news conference at the State House in Augusta, Maine.   It’s not often that utilities, lawmakers, and solar advocates all support a solar plan. But when they do, the governor opposes it. At least, that’s what’s happening in Maine, where Republican Gov. Paul LePage won’t back a plan that supporters say would create 800 solar jobs and lower electricity bills across the state. The legislation would increase Maine’s solar capacity from 20 megawatts (MW) to 248 MW over the next five years. Nearly half of the new capacity would be on homes and small businesses, with about a quarter coming from commercial and community installations, and the rest going to utility-scale development. The proposal, developed by...

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CLEAN AVIATION WILL TAKE WING, BUT ETA IS UP IN THE AIR...

Mar 10, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   By Thor Benson  TRUTHDIG Jerry Lin / Shutterstock Elon Musk is not the kind of eccentric billionaire who proposes strange ideas for the future and doesn’t deliver on them. He talked about creating reusable rockets for space travel, and he’s done that. He talked about making the Tesla a successful electric car brand, and the company started turning a profit in 2013. Then he said the cars would become self-driving, and that prospect is looking good. Musk has also talked about creating a “hyperloop” that will quickly transport people across long distances in tubes, another project that is in the works. So when Musk starts talking about fully electric airplanes, you’d better believe he’s not just blowing smoke. Musk cares about Tesla because electric cars are good for the environment, and he...

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CHINESE WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT WILL BE A MILE IN CIRCUMFERENCE...

Mar 9, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] SHL Architects By Kate Yoder GRIST On the mountainous outskirts of Shenzhen, a fast-growing megacity in China, the largest waste-to-energy plant in the world is on the horizon. You can bet that this disk-shaped trash-burning plant isn’t going to do any wonders for China’s notoriously bad air quality. It’s projected to burn 5,500 tons of trash per day — one-third of the waste Shenzhen produces. But the alternative isn’t very pretty, either. Fast Company reports: In China, most waste currently goes to landfills or illegal dumps — piles of trash so huge that they can actually be dangerous, like the landfill in Shenzhen that collapsed in December and killed dozens of people nearby. It’s a space problem, but also a climate problem, because landfills emit potent greenhouse gases as garbage rots away. Incinerating...

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IS WORRY WORTHWHILE IN CONFRONTING CLIMATE CHANGE?...

Mar 7, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] NYTDOT By Andrew C. Revkin Credit Andrew C. Revkin Various updates | Is worry worthwhile in confronting a challenge as complex and sprawling — in time and geography — as greenhouse-driven climate change? Photo A March, 2016, cover story in Time Magazine told readers to “be worried.”Credit Time I’ve addressed this question before in various ways, but was prompted to dig into my ideas and feelings about the building greenhouse effect with new rigor when two very different magazines, Issues in Science and Technology (the magazine of the National Academies) and Creative Nonfiction, invited me to write an essay on my 30 years of climate inquiry. I went through three or four completely different drafts and settled on a narrative starting with how I’ve come to deal with two immovable realities — my...

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CAN THE U.S. ACHIEVE ITS CLIMATE GOALS?...

Mar 4, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] THE DIRT by Jared Green Electricity transmission / Institute for Energy Research With the U.S. Supreme Court stay of President Obama’s clean power plan, there are concerns the U.S. will miss its stated goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) by 26-28 percent by 2025. The U.S. made this commitment in advance of the UN Climate Summit in Paris last year. The commitment was viewed as critical to getting China and the rest of the world on board with significant GHGs cuts. In early February, the Supreme Court voted 5-4 to halt the Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.)’s new rules that will force states to come up with a plan to reduce GHGs from electric power plants by 2020 until it can hear from the 29 states and multiple corporations that sued to stop...

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FOR THE FIRST TIME, SOLAR WILL BE THE TOP NEW SOURCE OF ENERGY THIS YEAR...

Mar 4, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Alejandro Davila Fragoso CLIMATE PROGRESS CREDIT: AP Photo/John Locher   For the first time ever utility-scale solar projects will add more new capacity to the nation’s grid than any other industry this year, the U.S. Energy Information Administration reported Tuesday. Natural gas and wind energy follow somewhat closely, according to the EIA’s monthly report, which notes that solar, gas and wind energy will make up 93 percent of all new energy. Solar projects will generate about 9.5 gigawatts of new energy. Natural gas, meanwhile, will add 8 gigawatts while wind is poised to create 6.8 gigawatts. One gigawatt is enough energy to power about 700,000 average homes. “I think it’s great, it’s evidence that the [solar] industry’s moved really into the mainstream,” said Justin Baca, vice president of markets and research at...

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WORLD’S BIGGEST FLOATING SOLAR FARM POWERS UP OUTISIDE LONDON...

Feb 29, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] THE GUARDIAN Construction of Europe’s largest floating solar panel array is underway on London’s Queen Elizabeth II reservoir. Photograph: Martin Godwin for the Guardian Divers fix anchors onto the bed of the reservoir. The panels are fixed to floats at the water’s edge, and then fed down onto the water. Photograph: Martin Godwin for the Guardian The system will cover around one-tenth of the reservoir. Photograph: Martin Godwin for the Guardian Five years in planning and due to be finished in early March, more than 23,000 solar panels will be floated on the Queen Elizabeth II reservoir near Heathrow and used to generate power for local water treatment plants Construction of Europe’s largest floating solar panel array is underway on London’s Queen Elizabeth II reservoir. Photograph: Martin Godwin for the Guardian Fiona Harvey...

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NO BILL GATES, WE DON’T NEED ENERGY MIRACLES TO SOLVE CLIMATE CHANGE...

Feb 27, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Joe Romm THINK PROGRESS CREDIT: Shutterstock   For six years, Bill Gates has been arguing that we need “energy miracles” to avoid catastrophic climate change. For six years, he has been wrong. In fact, Gates is more wrong now than he was in 2010. Why? Because in the last six years, we have seen that aggressive deployment of clean energy technology driven by government policies has — as was predicted — led to precisely the kind of game-changing cost-slashing innovation that Gates mistakenly thinks happens primarily from basic energy research and development (R&D). For six years, Gates has claimed we were wildly under-investing in basic energy R&D. Yet, somehow the very thing Gates says he wanted — huge price drops in key low-carbon technologies (like renewables and efficiency) and key enabling technologies...

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PROFIT OVER THE PLANET: WTO’S LAWSUIT RULING COULD BE A GIANT BLOW TO THE RENEWABLE ENERGY MOVEMENT...

Feb 27, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] WTO tribunal ruled in a lawsuit initiated by the U.S. that India’s national solar energy program violates trade law Ben Norton  SALON.COM (Credit: Reuters/Rick Wilking) A new ruling by the World Trade Organization could be a big blow to the growing renewable energy movement around the world. A WTO tribunal ruled Wednesday that India’s national solar energy program violates trade law, in a lawsuit initiated by the U.S. Almost half of states in the U.S. have programs that are similar to India’s, which subsidize the renewable energy industry and create local, environmentally friendly jobs. Environmental groups say the deal shows that the WTO and U.S. care more about free trade policies and profit than they do about moving toward renewable energy sources. Bill Waren, senior trade analyst at Friends of the Earth, said...

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2016 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE RANKINGS SHOW PROGRESS AND FAILURE...

Feb 19, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] THE DIRT   by Jared Green Deforestation in Brazil / Wired Yale University and Columbia University, together with the World Economic Forum, have released the 2016 Environmental Performance Index (EPI), which tracks how well countries protect human health and ecosystems. According to their analysis, “nearly every country” has improved their “environmental performance” on 20 different indicators over the past decade, while land and marine ecosystems only continue to decline. Countries in Western Europe and North America, which already have fairly high scores, now focus on incremental improvements, but are still gaining, while even China and India have shown significant improvements from 2006. Still, the problems facing both people and ecosystems are massive. More than 3.5 billion people — half of the world’s population — live in countries with “unsafe” air quality, and around...

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THE FUTURE OF THE GRID IS HERE, IN THESE TWO PRODUCTS...

Jan 21, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Samantha Page CLIMATE PROGRESS CREDIT: Shutterstock Rooftop solar plus storage installations can be combined to help manage the grid.   It’s no secret that solar power is having a moment. The renewable energy source has had year after year of record-breaking growth — and now employs more people than the coal industry. But the electrical grid can’t run off solar alone. In addition to the fact that it’s only expected to be 3 percent of generation by 2050, there is also the very basic problem that the sun only shines during the day, and we use electricity all the time. Enter electrical storage. The U.S. Department of Energy on Tuesday announced a round of new grants for research and development on solar plus storage — what the head of the solar industry...

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DESERT TOWER RAISES CHILE’S SOLAR POWER AMBITION TO NEW HEIGHTS...

Jan 16, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   THE GUARDIAN Towering 200 metres above the desert, the Atacama 1 will harvest the sun’s energy from a surrounding field of giant mirrors. But the completion of the $1.1bn project, the first of its kind in Latin America, has been thrown into doubt by the financial difficulties of its Spanish owner Atacama 1 concentrated solar power plant being built by Spanish firm Abengoa in Chile. Photograph: Jonathan Watts for the Guardian Jonathan Watts in the Atacama desert Rising more than 200 metres above the vast, deserted plains of the Atacama desert, the second tallest building in Chile sits in such a remote location that it looks, from a distance, like the sanctuary of a reclusive prophet, a temple to ancient gods or the giant folly of a wealthy eccentric. Instead, this extraordinary...

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Breathing Fire: How ‘Dragon Water’ Could Help Power the Planet...

Jan 11, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] The quest is on to develop new technology that can tap the intense heat deep below the Earth’s surface and supply the whole world with electricity. By Paul Brown / Climate News Network   VIA ALTERNET Photo Credit: N.Minton/Shutterstock.com An ambitious project is being launched to drill deep into the Earth’s crust to harness super-heated “dragon water” that would generate massive quantities of renewable energy. Unlike traditional geo-thermal heat, which exploits hot rocks to produce steam for turbines, this project goes far deeper − to where the pressure and temperature are huge but the potential benefits are 10 times as great. There is an infinite amount of energy beneath the Earth’s crust. The problem is the technology to harness it. The European Union (EU) believes that deep drilling techniques developed by the oil industry...

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ENERGY BOOST FOR RUSSIA AND NEIGHBORS...

Jan 7, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] By Paul Brown / Climate News Network   VIA TRUTHDIG     The Kosh-Agachsky solar power plant in southern Russia, near the Kazakhstan border. (Darya Ashanina via Wikimedia Commons) This Creative Commons-licensed piece first appeared at Climate News Network. LONDON—A new study says that Russia and the countries of Central Asia could become a highly energy-competitive region by getting all their electricity from renewable sources within the next 15 years. So far, most of the region’s governments appear not to have found the will to realise this huge potential. But researchers at Lappeenranta University of Technology in Finland calculate that the cost of electricity produced entirely from renewables would be half the price of modern nuclear technology and fossil-fuel burning if carbon capture and storage (CCS) had to be used. This would make all the...

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3 New Years Resolutions That Will End the World’s Dependency on Fossil Fuels...

Jan 1, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Environment The more renewable energy we use, the cheaper it gets. Fossil fuels get more expensive the more we burn them. So clean energy will win the affordability race. By Carl Pope / EcoWatch  VIA ALTERNET Photo Credit: oatawa/Shutterstock 1. Take Delivery: Accelerate pre-2020 Compliance with Emission Reduction Pledges The Paris accord—by contrast with Rio and Kyoto—was a bottom-up exercise in open-source diplomacy. National governments largely were significantly influenced by the leadership of cities, the private sector and community and civic organizations. But it was still nations that agreed to the text. And the text, as massive commentary has groaned and complained, is not binding. (Neither, in any meaningful sense, were Rio and Kyoto. The U.S. violated Rio which it ratified, and Canada walked from Kyoto. No traffic tickets were issued). Renewable energy...

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