JO JOERO ON SELF-HELP HOUSING, NEOLIBERALISM & WHAT PATRICK SCHUMACHER DOESN’T UNDERSTAND...

Dec 2, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Elvia Wilk  METROPOLIS MAGAZINE Table House, by Noero Architects Courtesy Uno Pereira At the recent World Architecture Festival (WAF) in Berlin, Jo Noero of Cape Town-based Noero Architects presented his ongoing Table House project: a deceptively simple, low-cost combination of posts and beams that can be adapted by residents to suit specific needs. The concept is a collaboration with Rainer Hehl, from the Architecture Design Innovation Program at Berlin’s Technical University. The two architects suggest the typology could be used to address entirely different housing crises in their respective countries. Following the festival, Metropolis contributor Elvia Wilk met with Noero to discuss whether the temporary can really become permanent, Rem Koolhaas’ “diabolical” influence on the profession of architecture, and, yes, Donald Trump. Elvia Wilk: Having followed several of your projects over time, one thing that...

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HOW BIG GOT ITS GROVE BACK

Dec 2, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   Gretchen Von Koenig  METROPOLIS MAGAZINE Photography courtesy Robin Hill Grove at Grand Bay, designed by Bjarke Ingels Group and developed by Miami based Terra Group, is the newest highrise to hit Miami. Located just south of South Beach in cozy and historic Coconut Grove, the project, although far from revolutionary, is attractive and contemporary—from the whimsy of the curved massing, to its elegant & structurally sophisticated engineering solutions, to its LEED Gold certification (an important precedent for Miami). But it’s BIG’s collaboration with landscape architect Raymond Jungles—a prolific designer in his own right—that truly brings the philosophy of “re-groving the grove”, Ingel’s supposed intent for the project, to life. The natural elements surrounding the project integrate it into the landscape perfectly, saving the Grove from becoming what it would otherwise be: yet another...

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A PROGRESS REPORT FROM THE CUTTING EDGE OF RESILIENT DESIGN...

Dec 2, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] THE DIRT   Jared Green Resilient Bridgeport / Rebuild by Design “We don’t know what resilience policy will look like in the new administration. There are lots of unknowns, but we can take solace in what we do know,” said Amy Chester, director of Rebuild by Design, at an event in Washington, D.C. that provided updates on how the six teams devising novel resilient designs in the tri-state area are doing two years into planning and design. Rebuild by Design, a unique cross-sector initiative supported by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Rockefeller Foundation’s 100 Resilient Cities Initiative, and numerous non-profit organizations, was created by President Obama in the wake of Hurricane Sandy, which hit the east coast in 2012 and damaged or destroyed 650,000 homes across 13 states. 148 teams...

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE IN THE NEWS HIGHLIGHTS NOVEMBER 16-30...

Dec 2, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] THE DIRT    J.R. Taylor Freeway Park, Seattle, Washington by Lawrence Halprin / Photograph © Aaron Leitz, courtesy The Cultural Landscape Foundation New Hudson River Park Will Be on Man-Made Island – The Wall Street Journal, 11/16/16 “Plans for a new park in Manhattan call for lush plants, towering trees, walking paths and a theater, all set on a rolling section of waterfront property.” Diana Balmori, Landscape Architect With a Blending Philosophy, Dies at 84 – The New York Times, 11/17/16 “Diana Balmori, a landscape architect whose ecologically sensitive designs integrated buildings and the natural environment in projects ranging in scope from urban rooftop gardens to South Korea’s new administrative capital, Sejong City, died on Monday in Manhattan.” From Penguin Watching to Healing Gardens, See the Best Australian Landscape Architecture from 2016 – The Architect’s...

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MOMA’S ‘INSECURITIES’ EXHIBITION EXAMINES GLOBAL DISPLACEMENT AND SHELTER...

Nov 28, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] INHABITAT   ‘insecurities: tracing displacement and shelter’ — an exhibition on view at new york’s MoMA until january 22, 2017 — explores how architecture, art, and design have addressed contemporary notions of shelter, as seen through migration and global refugee emergencies. organized by sean anderson and arièle dionne-krosnick, the display brings together a rich variety of works that respond to the complex circumstances brought about by forced displacement. ifo 2, dadaab refugee camp. brendan bannon. 2011 (main image: nizip II, container camp. tobias hutzler, 2014)     the MoMA exhibition shines a spotlight on present-day conditions that challenge conventional images of the built environment. the curators examine how the prevalence of shelters and refugee camps, situated across the globe, call into question the safety that they supposedly represent. responding to recent figures suggesting...

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CHINA IS BUILDING A GIANT SOLAR PLANT AT CHERNOBYL...

Nov 27, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Greg Beach INHABITAT.COM View Slideshow A new solar summer rises from the ashes of nuclear winter. Two Chinese energy firms will be constructing a new solar power plant in the exclusion zone near the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, which suffered a powerful explosion in 1986 that poisoned the surrounding area with nuclear radiation. “There will be remarkable social benefits and economic ones as we try to renovate the once damaged area with green and renewable energy,” said Shu Hua, the chairman of GCL System Integration Technology (GCL-SI), one of the firms tasked with the project. Making the best of a bad situation could prove inspiring to others as the global community begins the hard work of implementing the Paris Agreement. A 1,000 square mile exclusion zone of forests and marshland surrounds the former Chernobyl nuclear...

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TRUMPITECTURE: WHAT WE CAN EXPECT FROM THE BILLIONAIRE COWBOY BUILDER...

Nov 27, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Architecture THE GUARDIAN Donald Trump’s towers glitter with gold lamé and mirrored glass. But underneath lurks a story of broken promises, angry buyers and lawsuits. What does this mean for his $500bn presidential building spree?   Scaled down after 9/11 … Trump International hotel and tower, Chicago. Photograph: Raymond Boyd/Getty Oliver Wainwright   As the self-styled builder president, Donald Trump began his electoral campaign with a grand architectural promise. “I will build a great wall,” he said, standing in the lobby of his proudest creation, Trump Tower in New York, surrounded by 240 tonnes of pink Breccia Pernice marble. “Nobody builds walls better than me, believe me. And I’ll build them very inexpensively.” The billionaire real estate tycoon and president-elect has made a career out of building inexpensive walls and filling them with...

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CATALYZING EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

Nov 26, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] RMI left, The RMI Innovation Center, © Tim Griffith; right © Romy Purshouse The buildings we spend over 90 percent our lives inside consume more than 40 percent of our total energy, so a clean energy future must be centered in our homes and offices, in our schools and gathering places. Reducing buildings’ demand for energy while generating and storing it nearby is also key to resiliency in the face of storms and floods — like the recent, devastating Hurricane Matthew — which our rapidly warming world dishes out more frequently. Buildings that perform better save money, have increased value, and, with their cleaner air and natural light, help children grow up healthier and workers be more productive while at work — and take far fewer sick days. But because of a focus on the up-front costs — rather than the...

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FIVE CUTTING-EDGE BUILDING MATERIALS TO WATCH IN 2016...

Nov 24, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] These products and technologies draw inspiration from the natural world. By Blaine Brownell   IAI The beginning of a new year routinely comes with the making of lists, often to forecast trends or outline objectives for the next 12 months. I would like to offer my own set of predictions for 2016. The following materials technologies, I expect, will make significant headway this year. None is yet commercially available, but many will launch in 2016 and the others will get that much closer to market availability during the period. This motley collection of innovations, which includes clothing made from synthesized spider threads, consumer products bio-engineered from discarded shrimp shells, and a bridge built entirely by robots, represents the culmination of years—sometimes decades—of research. I list them below in the anticipated chronological order of realization, although surprises and setbacks are inevitable. Join...

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HOW A SHIPPING CONTAINER COULD BE YOUR NEXT APARTMENT...

Nov 24, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] With hundreds of millions struggling to pay rent, a surprising solution could be as close as the nearest port. The Danish affordable-housing initiative CPH Shelter uses shipping containers for cost-effective, energy-efficient housing. (Photo: Igor Bezludov via CPH Shelter/Facebook TakePart editorial fellow Nicole Mormann covers a variety of topics, including social justice, entertainment, and environment. Even in the happiest nation on earth, students struggle to find housing that accommodates their budget. Now, one architect and his team believe they’ve hit upon a simple solution for young residents of Copenhagen, Denmark: a village made from upcycled shipping containers. “In Denmark, there’s a lack of 20,000 student homes,” Michael Plesner, cofounder and partner at CPH Containers, told TakePart. “If scaled up, container villages can actually help push down the price on the general housing markets of...

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REFUGEES COULD ‘SAVE’ AMERICA’S RUST BELT — WILL WE LET THEM?...

Nov 23, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Metropolis Magazine Across the nation, refugees are boosting America’s legacy cities, but encountering resistance from residents. If these cities are to succeed, we must reframe the narrative around refugees—and design could have a pivotal role to play. Vanessa Quirk Zam-Zam Grocery Store and Bakery, located in Dearborn, Detroit. Hand painted Arabic store signs are reminiscent of the Arab world and are often found in areas occupied by Arab immigrants and refugees. Courtesy Jenna Hamed In May of last year, David Laitin, a political science professor at Stanford University, penned a controversial op-ed in the New York Times. In “Let Syrians Settle Detroit,” he juxtaposed two unrelated yet concurrent disasters: the millions of Syrians fleeing their war-torn land, and the contraction of the once-prosperous city of Detroit, which has left thousands of buildings abandoned and lots vacant....

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ENVISIONING TRUMP’S FUTURE WHITE HOUSE...

Nov 20, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] víctor enrich envisions ‘phalus 2020’, president trump’s future white house   the recent mania brought on by the united states election has spurred a number of creative projects from creatives across the globe. estudio 3.14 recently imagined trump’s mexican-american wall proposal, while and sagmeister & walsh conceived a series of politically charged protest pins.   with donald trump officially confirmed as the next president of the united states, catalan artist víctor enrich has realized a series of aerial pictures of washington DC, depicting how the white house might look after his presidency, in 2020. the artist has digitally constructed a fictional interpretation of the white house in 2020     enrich has envisioned a scheme he calls ‘phalus 2020′, which depicts the original white house stacked 13 times on top of itself. the imposing structure mimics the president...

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HOW TRUMP PLANS TO FIX THE NATION’S INFRASTRUCTURE...

Nov 19, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   The President-elect’s ambitious proposal relies on private financing, but the plan has its critics. By Elizabeth Evitts Dickinson  COMMON EDGE Michael Mulvey via flickr Can you get something for nothing? According to President-elect Donald Trump, the answer is yes. You can get $1 trillion in infrastructure using a “revenue neutral” model of private financing that won’t burden government budgets. The declining state of America’s infrastructure has long been a major issue for both Democrats and Republicans, but the parties have disagreed about how to pay for what the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has identified as a $3.6 trillion investment gap. Trump’s senior policy advisers say they have an answer. In late October, Wilbur Ross, a private equity investor, and Peter Navarro, a University at California, Irvine business professor, released a...

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THE AIA’S TONE-DEAF RESPONSE TO THE ELECTION OF DONALD TRUMP...

Nov 19, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] By Duo Dickinson  COMMONEDGE,ORG The 2016 U.S. presidential election was the most divisive since the Civil War. Not only did the winner lose the popular vote by almost two million votes, many who voted for him thought he was unqualified, but—somehow—more trustworthy than the loser. Turnout was down as both candidates had record “unfavorable” ratings.   After presidential elections, most national organizations issue a press release pledging to work with the incoming administration. But this was not every election. This was a cataclysmic break from reality, as most of us know it. So why would any professional association take a baseball bat to that beehive and issue any statement, pro or con? Well, my professional voice, the profession’s only national voice, the American Institute of Architects, did just that:   “The AIA and...

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LIFE DURING TRUMP: PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE WILL COME FROM THE BOTTOM UP...

Nov 19, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Essays By Edward Mazria We are facing two very different and defining moments in history: the ratification of the Paris Climate Agreement and the results of the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Should the U.S. government fail to honor or withdraw from the Paris Agreement, this will be completely inconsistent with our core values and professional and civic responsibilities. The U.S. and global architecture and planning community, along with our colleagues in the building sector and sub-national governments, will continue to lead the effort to implement the objectives contained in the Paris Agreement and drive progress toward an equitable, sustainable, resilient, and carbon-neutral built environment.” Edward Mazria, Founder and CEO, Architecture 2030   As many are left feeling fearful and uncertain in the wake of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, it is important to remember that...

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GREENSBURG, KANSAS OVERCAME ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER AND EMBRACED A GREEN FUTURE...

Nov 19, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] State and local sustainability efforts will be more important than ever. Greensburg, Kansas. CREDIT: City of Greensburg By Jeremy Deaton It’s been a rough week for climate hawks. President-elect Donald Trump is headed to the White House, where he promises to gut federal climate policy. In light of his ascent to power, green groups are looking to alternate venues for action — namely local and regional governments. California and New York have both doubled down on their carbon-cutting goals since Election Day. Portland mayor Charlie Hales said the federal government will not be “a block to the actions we are taking at the local level.” Climate advocates are working to bring more states and cities into the fold, and not just liberal strongholds like Portland and San Francisco. Climate action is a tough sell in some...

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“SMART” ELECTRICITY GENERATING WINDOWS ARE ON THEIR WAY...

Nov 18, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] FUTURISM Zastavki In Brief New smart windows are not only able to toggle transparency but also store electricity to power other devices. These windows can help reduce a home’s carbon footprint by helping to regulate heat as well as taking away some of the power consumption burden. Smarter Smart Windows Researchers from the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland designed smart windows that can harness solar energy as well as adjust to either allow or block light using a switch. The solar smart window not only uses the solar energy to power itself up but can also store energy for powering other devices. The technology uses a polymer matrix imbued with microdroplets of liquid crystals and an amorphous silicon layer like those in solar cells. These are then...

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE IN THE NEWS HIGHLIGHTS (NOVEMBER 1-15)...

Nov 17, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] THE DIRT   J.R. Taylor Atlanta BeltLine, Atlanta / Matthew Pillsbury for The New York Times Sponge-Worthy Design for the Gowanus Canal – The Architectural Record, 11/1/16 “A tiny new park in Brooklyn has a big job: absorbing and filtering a million gallons of stormwater each year that flows into one of the most putrid waterways in the United States.” Green Thumb: Landscape Architect Enzo Enea on Bringing Mysticism to Miami’s Waterfront – Wallpaper, 11/7/16 “From his first job working on the landscaping of Hawaii’s Sheraton Hotel in the 1990s, Enzo Enea has been refining his craft.” Lawrence Halprin: Designer of “One of the Most Important Urban Spaces Since the Renaissance” – The Huffington Post, 11/10/16 “He created bold, innovative environments that blew people away. When the Ira Keller Forecourt Fountain in Portland, OR...

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TRUMPITECTURE STANDS AS A SAD BUT HONEST REFLECTION OF THE VALUES TRUMP PROUDLY EMBODIES...

Nov 15, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]  Dezeen Magazine Hot List Doug Staker The garish and self-indulgent buildings developed by Republican candidate Donald Trump reveal a lot about how he would run America if elected president tomorrow, says US architect Doug Staker in this Opinion column. As an architect trained in the ways of contemporary thought, it was hard for me to take Donald Trump seriously as a candidate. To me his architecture – let’s call it Trumpitecture – was always a collection of unsightly, tasteless eyesores. Because of my own distaste for the Trump Tower in any of its iterations, I did not understand how anyone could take him seriously in any other facet of life; yet I reluctantly admit that architectural taste might not be everyone’s primary filter for leadership potential. In hindsight, however, I believe there is...

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THE BIM MOMENT: WHAT WE’RE LOSING IN THE ROBOT-AGE OF ARCHITECTURE...

Nov 6, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Essays By Duo Dickinson   COMMON EDGE.ORG For most architects today, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the elephant in the room. We know BIM and Revit take the efficiencies of CAD drawings and launch them into a near seamless technological integration of the entire design/build process that will ultimately change the way every architect works.   But change is always hard. Especially change that is both not chosen and involves alien technologies. Involuntary change causes great fear and often angry rejection. When huge machines began to eliminate artisanal labor in 1811 textile mills in England, some radical rejectionists began smashing those machines—Luddites, named for a possibly apocryphal young textile worker, Ned Ludd.   I may be closer to Ned Ludd than I want to admit. I am 61 and cannot draw a line in...

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CLIMATE CHANGE IS UPON US. HOW ARE WE PLANNING FOR IT?...

Oct 15, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] By Steve Cochran, Steven Bingler   COMMONEDGE.COM In his 1972 science fiction novel The Gods Themselves, which takes place a century after an ecological and economic collapse that reduces the world’s population from six billion to two billion people, Isaac Asimov wrote: “The easiest way to solve a problem is to deny it exists.” For too long now, that has been the collective mindset toward climate change of too many. But the escalating rise of sea levels that might one day have been imagined as science fiction is now a reality. The result is that solutions that could once be addressed through mitigation may now require profound adaptation – and in many cases, at a massive urban scale. For decades, the scientific community has been sounding a clarion call for greater attention to carbon...

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WHEN IT COMES TO BUILDINGS AND CLIMATE CHANGE, COLORADO MATTERS...

Oct 13, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] ROCKY MOUNTAIN INSTITUTE Victor Olgyay, AIA Principal Kelly Vaughn Marketing Manager Colorado regularly tops the list of most active and “fittest” states in the U.S. We love to hike, bike, ski, and really do anything outdoors. So do more than 77 million tourists who come to our state each year to visit national parks, ski and snowboard, and hike our lovely mountains. All of these activities rely on blue, pollution-free skies, open, natural spaces, and, of course, snow—all of which are being threatened by a warming planet. Buildings have an enormous impact on earth’s climate. Globally, they consume 35 percent of all energy and 60 percent of all generated electricity, making them the largest end-use energy sector, followed by industry and transportation. Buildings’ appetite for electricity—most of which is produced by fossil fuels—threatens...

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SHANTY MEGASTRUCTURES ENVISIONS A COLOSSAL VERTICAL SLUM IN THE HEART OF LAGOS...

Oct 13, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   by Lidija Grozdanic  INHABITAT.COM View Slideshow Nigerian designer Olalekan Jeyifous has made the social and economic issues of Lagos, Nigeria, more visible with a conceptual design that transports the city’s deprived settlements and impoverished areas to centrally-located high-rises. The project, called Shanty Megastructures, draws attention to the poor standard of living in the slums and aims to empower the dispossessed. The towers of the imaginary city are intertwined with improvised structures, patches of weathered materials, all linked by a network of roller coasters. The project takes its name from the phrase “Shanty town”, which describes improvised housing developments usually located on the outskirts of cities. This type of development in Lagos is located near the Atlantic Ocean, where architect Kunlé Adeyemi built his highly publicized floating school. Related: Abandoned Skyscraper in Venezuela...

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WORLD’S LARGEST PASSIVE HOUSE SETTLEMENT TOPS OFF IN GERMANY...

Oct 13, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]   by Lucy Wang  INHABITAT.COM View Slideshow The world’s largest passive house development just celebrated a topping out ceremony in a monumental step forward for sustainable architecture in Germany. Created by Frey Group, the energy-efficient Heidelberg Village is the epicenter of Bahnstadt, Heidelberg’s newest urban district where all buildings are designed to meet passive house standards. The new project is a “living community” emphasizing multigenerational living, access to green space, and a heterogenous neighborhood setup that encourages social interaction. Located on the land of a former old freight train terminal, the 116-hectare Bahnstadt celebrates sustainable architecture and diversity in its living, work, and cultural spaces all built to passive house standards for an ultra-low energy footprint. The 6,100-square-meter Heidelberg Village, located at the heart of Bahnstadt, encapsulates the urban development’s values with ecological...

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THE HOUSE OF 2016

Oct 10, 2016 Posted by

[Translate]  ...

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WHAT ARCHITECTURE HAS IN COMMON WITH ORGANIZED RELIGION...

Oct 9, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Opinion By Duo Dickinson  COMMON EDGE.ORG The 21st century has not been kind to either architecture or organized religion. In architecture, digital technology has rewritten virtually every job description, making many skills obsolete and downsizing the human input that was once required to build. Amid this technological explosion there has been a dramatic shift away from traditional expressions of faith.   All professions are reeling from the cyber revolution. But to me architects and clerics have more in common than other professions. Organized religion and aesthetics are belief systems. Without relevance to their believers, belief systems are unsustainable. The internet has laid bare every belief system to unlimited scrutiny—irrelevance and pretense is obvious when instantly exposed for universal judgment. Any pandering, posturing, or hypocrisy is immediately flamed on the web.   Top-down declarations...

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GREEN-ROOFED COLORADO HOME IS BURIED INTO THE EARTH TO SAVE ENERGY...

Oct 7, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] by Lucy Wang  INHABITAT View Slideshow When New York-based architecture firm Gluck+ was tapped to build a home in the stunning Colorado Rocky Mountains, the architects knew they would be remiss if they didn’t minimize the visual impact of their design. As a result, the firm created House in the Mountains, a green-roofed guesthouse that’s partially buried underground and blends into the landscape. The handsome sunken home also saves on energy use thanks to the earth’s thermal inertia and with solar panels. The 2,850-square-foot House in the Mountains comprises two rectilinear steel-framed forms that intersect to form the corner of a swimming pool and an implied courtyard that extends to the existing main house. The primary sloped structure rises from to the south at a 20-degree angle and houses the open-plan living, dining,...

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PEDAGOGICAL PROTOTYPE

Oct 7, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Metropolis Magazine A well-designed transition space helped Riverdale Country School prepare for the innovations in its new school building. Anne Quito Riverdale Country School inaugurated its temporary Learning Complex with a flag-raising ceremony last summer. All images courtesy Architecture Research Office Temporary architecture often takes the form of ill-planned, flimsy structures equipped with only the barest amenities. But for Riverdale Country School in the Bronx, New York, “makeshift” meant a chance to experiment and play. While its new state-of-the-art Upper Learning Building, designed by New York–based Architecture Research Office (ARO), was being built down the road, Riverdale challenged the architects to conjure up an inspired temporary space for the school year. Taking design cues from Wes Anderson’s 2012 coming-of-age film Moonrise Kingdom, they transformed 13 rented box trailers into the Learning Complex, a colorful...

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THE ROAD TO RECOVERY MAY BE GREEN...

Oct 5, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] THE DIRT   Jared Green The Green Road / Jared Green Can spending time in nature help heal veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury? As suicides from PTSD sufferers only increase, the Institute for Integrative Health (TIIH) seeks out answers to this important question through their new Green Road project, which just opened at the Naval Support Activity Bethesda, home of Walter Reed Military Medical Center, in Maryland. In the middle of the vast medical and university campus, the Green Road takes patients, nurses, and staff down a zig-zaging path to a healing woodland garden, a beautiful 2-acre valley, which used to be a golf course, but now feels wild. The restored forest and stream are at the heart of the experience. Restored stream / Jared Green Restored stream bank...

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BUILDING A BETTER ‘BURB’: THE RACE TO DESIGN A SUSTAINABLE SUBURBIA IS ALSO MAKING THE SUBURBS KIND OF COOL...

Oct 2, 2016 Posted by

[Translate] Ecological concerns have led to a long overdue look at the design of suburbs. The results could be revolutionary Diane Stopyra   SALON.COM Topics: Editor’s Picks, New Urbanism, suburban sprawl, suburbia, urban planning, Innovation News, Sustainability News Cite, New Mexico(Credit: Perkins+Will) Suburbia is an easy target. But its problems run deeper than disillusioned housewives waking up from their American dreams in cookie-cutter colonials. Suburban living is not environmentally sustainable — at least, not yet. But a new crop of designers, architects and urban planners is envisioning a world in which minivans, manicured lawns and mail carriers are replaced by autonomous cars — aka, suburbia 2.0. While cities conjure up images of smog clouds and smokestacks, studies show the carbon footprint of a typical suburban home is four times greater than that of an urban dwelling:  Larger households require more heating and cooling....

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